1943: Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts publish a paper proposing a computational model for neural networks, which becomes a foundation for artificial intelligence research.
1956: John McCarthy, Marvin Minsky, Nathaniel Rochester, and Claude Shannon organize the Dartmouth Conference, widely considered to be the birth of artificial intelligence as a field of study.
1959: Allen Newell and Herbert Simon develop the General Problem Solver, a program that can solve a wide range of problems.
1966: The ELIZA program, created by Joseph Weizenbaum, demonstrates natural language processing capabilities and becomes a landmark in AI research.
1974: The first AI winter begins, as funding for AI research declines due to unfulfilled promises and unrealistic expectations.
1981: The first AI-based expert system, called MYCIN, is developed to assist with medical diagnosis and treatment.
1997: IBM’s Deep Blue defeats chess world champion Garry Kasparov in a six-game match, marking the first time a computer defeats a reigning world champion in a chess match.
2011: IBM’s Watson supercomputer defeats human champions in the quiz show Jeopardy!
2012: Google’s deep learning neural network, called Google Brain, achieves breakthrough results in image recognition.
2016: Google’s AlphaGo program defeats the world champion in the board game Go, considered a major milestone in AI research.
2018: OpenAI creates an AI system called GPT-2 that can generate realistic and coherent text, leading to concerns about the potential misuse of AI-generated content.
2020: AI continues to make significant progress in a range of applications, including natural language processing, image and speech recognition, and autonomous driving. However, concerns about the ethical implications of AI also continue to grow, leading to calls for regulation and oversight.